1120 SW 5th Avenue, Room 1000, Portland, OR 97204
Portland's first sewers, constructed in the late 19th century, combined sewage and stormwater in the same pipes and carried the wastewater directly to the Willamette River and Columbia Slough without treatment. In 1952, new interceptor pipes began collecting sewage from the combined sewers for conveyance to Portland's first sewage treatment plant.
The new system improved water quality. But because stormwater runoff during wet weather filled the combined sewers to capacity, some of the sewage and stormwater mixture still overflowed to the river and slough. New streets, rooftops and other hard surfaces increased as Portland grew, generating more stormwater runoff and increasing CSO volume.
Estimated annual CSO volume reached 10 billion gallons by the 1970s. A series of sewer improvement projects reduced volume to about six billion gallons a year by 1990.
The City of Portland and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) agreed on a CSO control plan in 1991, and an amended plan in 1994. That plan, the Amended Stipulation and Final Order (ASFO), required Portland to control CSOs to the Columbia Slough by 2000 and to the Willamette River by 2011.
The city finished CSO construction and activated the Willamette River CSO tunnel system before its December 1, 2011 deadline.
Before the CSO program began, Portland’s combined sewers overflowed an average of 50 times a year, spilling about six billion gallons of combined sewage into the Columbia Slough and Willamette River every year. The CSO program reduced overflows to the slough by 99% and to the river by 94%. Today, combined sewers overflow to the river no more than four times per winter and once every three summers.
As little as one-tenth of an inch of rain once caused a CSO event. Now it takes a winter storm of at least 1.2 inches in 24 hours and a summer storm of 1.4 inches in 24 hours to cause a CSO.
How Portland controls CSOs
December 2012 final report
Temperature and e. coli information for the Willamette River in Portland
Program summary from 1991 to 2011
Check to see if a combined sewer overflow (CSO) has occurred in the Willamette River
A video overview of Portland's 20-year combined sewer overflow control program
Construction is complete
Environmental Services completed the West Side Big Pipe projects in 2006
A CSO Program film narrated by Walter Cronkite
Building the West Side Big Pipe
Projects controlled CSOs to the slough by 99%
Downspout disconnection, sump installation, stream diversion and sewer separation are the cornerstones of the CSO control program
Scultpure installed at the Swan Island Pump Station in 2009
Facts about Rosie
Stormwater management that mimics natural systems