The definitions contained in this Section relate to excavation and grading work only as outlined in this Chapter.
A. " Approval" shall mean a written engineering or geological opinion concerning the progress and completion of the work.
B. "As graded" is the surface conditions exposed on completion of grading.
C. "Bedrock" is in-place solid rock.
D. "Bench" is a relatively level step excavated into earth material on which fill is to be placed.
E. "Borrow" is earth material acquired from an off-site location for use in grading on a site.
F. "Civil engineer" shall mean a professional engineer registered in the State to practice in the field of civil works.
G. "Civil engineering" shall mean the application of the knowledge of the forces of nature, principles of mechanics, and the properties of materials to the evaluation, design, and construction of civil works for the beneficial uses of mankind.
H. "Clearing" is the cutting or removal of vegetation which results in exposing any bare soil.
I. "Compaction" is the densification of a fill by mechanical means.
J. "Earth material" is any rock, natural soil, or fill and/or any combination thereof.
K. "Engineering geologist" shall mean a geologist experienced and knowledgeable in engineering geology and registered as an engineering geologist in the State of Oregon.
L. "Engineering geology" shall mean the application of geologic knowledge and principles in the investigation and evaluation of naturally occurring rock and soil for use in the design of civil works.
M. "Erosion" is the wearing away of the ground surface as a result of the movement of wind, water, and/or ice.
N. "Excavation" is the mechanical removal of earth material.
O. "Fill" is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial means.
P. "Geological hazard" shall mean a potential or apparent risk to persons or property because of geological or soil instability either existing at the time of construction or which would result from construction.
Q. "Grade" shall mean the vertical location of the ground surface.
R. "Existing grade" is the grade prior to grading.
S. "Rough grade" is the stage at which the grade approximately conforms to the approved plan.
T. "Finish grade" is the final grade of the site which conforms to the approved plan.
U. "Grading" is any excavating or filling or combination thereof.
V. "Key" is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench excavated in earth material beneath the toe of a proposed fill slope.
W. "Site" is any lot or parcel of land or contiguous combination thereof, under the same ownership, where grading is performed or permitted.
X. "Slope" is an inclined ground surface the inclination of which is expressed as a ratio of horizontal distance to vertical distance.
Y. "Soil" is naturally occurring surficial deposits overlying bedrock.
Z. "Soil (Geotechnical) engineer" shall mean a civil engineer competent by education, training, and experience in the practice of soil engineering.
AA. "Soil (Geotechnical) engineering" shall mean the application of the principles of soil mechanics in the investigation, evaluation, and design of civil works involving the use of earth materials and the inspection and testing of the construction thereof.
BB. "Terrace" is a relatively level step constructed in the face of a graded slope surface for drainage and maintenance purposes.