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The Historic Flowering Cherries of the Albina Tree Planting Program

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Upcoming Presentation and Tree Walk (4/16/16): Tree History in King-Sabin

By Dave Hedberg, Urban Forestry Community Service Aide II

Cherry trees

This mature flowering cherry tree on NE Mallory recently got some more space to grow, thanks to a sidewalk adjustment at the base of the tree (photo courtesy of Dave Hedberg). 

When: Saturday, April 16, 2016, 1-3pm

Where: Whole Foods (3535 NE 15th Ave, Portland OR 97212)

Register here: http://tinyurl.com/kingsabinhistory

April is Arbor Month and it is a fitting time to reflect on how Portlanders have planted urban street trees- both today and in the past. 

With the arrival of spring, many trees in the urban forest are budding and blossoming in spectacular displays of color. Take a stroll in Portland and you will likely see many beautiful flowering cherry trees, particularly in the Albina District (Boise, Eliot, King, Sabin, Overlook, Piedmont, and Humboldt neighborhoods). While they are certainly picturesque this time of year, these trees also have a deep connection to the history of the neighborhood. They point back to the grassroots activism of the local African-American leaders who worked to beautify the community. 

Following World War II and the Vanport Flood, Portland's African-Americans faced prejudiced real-estate zoning or "redlining," which effectively restricted the community to Albina. Urban development projects, like Memorial Coliseum and Emanuel Hospital, further displaced significant numbers of black business owners and residents. By the 1960s, while much of the city celebrated relative affluence, members of Albina's black community were suffering from poverty and city disinvestment in their neighborhoods.

In 1961, local black leaders like Mrs. Opal Strong, took matters into their own hands. Organizing as the Albina Neighborhood Improvement Committee, local leaders obtained $1 million in federal funds to revitalize the neighborhoods. To beautify the area and foster a deeper sense of place, the Albina Tree Planting Program, part of the larger revitalization project, began planting trees in 1962. Headed by Rev. Faddie J. Crear, the program included both black and white residents and many celebrated it for its inclusiveness.

Throughout the twelve years of the program, leaders favored planting the Kwanzan flowering cherry. With so many trees planted, it is not easy to date conclusively, but it is fair to say that most mature flowering cherries in this area are associated with the program. The program also planted other species including: incense cedar, japanese maples, dogwood, and tulip trees. In 1964 alone, the program planted over 500 trees in Albina! 

 Albina Tree Planting Program

Albina Tree Planting program, ca. 1964, courtesy of the Oregon Historical Society, 52657)

Tree Planting, 1966

Oregonian, Feb.12, 1966, p. 15.

Today, many of these flowering cherry trees have grown beyond the confines of their smaller planting strips, thereby lifting up sidewalks and creating hazards. Additionally, many of these trees, while beautiful, have come to the end of their life spans. 

Just this year, members of the Albina Neighborhood Tree Team obtained Urban Forest Stewardship Funding to help lower-income neighbors to remove their dead or dying cherry trees, and replace them with a more diverse collection of trees. Selecting new flowering trees that are better suited for the smaller planting strips will continue the grassroots tradition of Albina.

As you admire the spring blossoms, take a moment to appreciate our neighbors, past and present, who have taken to the shovel, to plant new trees. Their investment rewards us all.

If the history of Portland's trees interests you, then please consider attending a fun talk and tree walk, sponsored by the King-Sabin Tree Team on Saturday, April 16, 2016. We will explore this and many other fascinating tree histories in the King and Sabin neighborhoods.   

For more information, please contact: Patrick.Key@portlandoregon.gov

Albina Cherry Trees

Martha and Willie Jones moved into this home on NE Prescott in 1965, in the midst of the Albina Tree Planting Program. They may have participated in the planting of these flowering cherries (photo courtesy of Dave Hedberg). 

St. Johns Tree History Workshop - Saturday, April 9, 2016

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Learn about the Oregon white oak and its history in the St. Johns neighborhood

by Patrick Key, Urban Forestry Tree Plan Coordinator and AmeriCorps Member

oaks

photo by Patrick Key

When: Saturday, April 9, 2016, 10am - noon

Where: Pioneer Methodist Church in Clark Hall (7528 N Charleston Ave)

The native Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) has a long and important history for the many generations of people that have lived in the Portland area. The range of this tree extends from Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, all the way to Los Angeles, California. Not only does this tree have a wide distribution, but it has and continues to serve various important roles for both people and animals. 

Humans have utilized the Oregon white oak for many different purposes through the years. The native tribes, including the Calapooia and Chinook peoples, have used the acorns as an important food source. The process of preparation today usually involves boiling until the tannins have been removed from the fruits. Historically, the native peoples used flowing water to remove these potentially harmful chemicals. A large number of leaching pits have been found on Sauvie Island, where a natural spring constantly pushes fresh water through the soil and into Multnomah Channel. It is estimated that this location may have processed over 2.5 million acorns a year, providing the people with 59 million calories. These acorns were not only consumed by the collectors, but also used as a trade good. 

This history of trade is reflected in the genetic distribution of the Oregon white oak through the Pacific Northwest. Genetic differences seem to indicate that most of the oaks that grow in the Willamette Valley originated from the area around Vancouver Island, BC, rather than from Southern Oregon and Northern California. This seems to indicate the movement of acorns from the north, along the Columbia and Willamette Rivers. There are some isolated pockets of the genetically southern white oak in Washington State, indicating movement north, as well. These are great displays of how important a food source this species was to the native peoples. 

For more information about Oregon white oaks and their history in the St. Johns neighborhood, join us on Saturday April 9, 2016 . Historian Dave Hedberg will present on the history of trees in this neighborhood and the roles they have played through time.  

Registration and further info: http://tinyurl.com/stjohnstreehistory

or email: Patrick.Key@portlandoregon.gov

oaks

photo by Patrick Key

How to ID Tree-of-Heaven

An easy guide to identification of this highly invasive species

by Patrick Key, Urban Forestry Tree Plan Coordinator and AmeriCorps Member

Patrick.Key@portlandoregon.gov

Ailanthus growing along fence

 Ailanthus growing along a fence (photo by Johnson Creek Watershed).

Ailanthus altissima has many different names, including tree-of-heaven, stink tree, and Chinese sumac. In China, it is called chouchun, which literally translates as "foul smelling tree." Whatever you call it, this invasive tree has become a big problem in our region. Originally, from China and Taiwan, it proliferates and grows rapidly, often before people realize that it is a problem. Learning to identify this invader is the first step in controlling its spread. 

Tree identification, in general, can be a complicated and sometimes difficult process. Luckily, the tree-of-heaven has a some very obvious characteristics that can make recognizing it easier.

The leaves of Ailanthus are a great way to identify this problem tree. The leaves can grow to be one to three feet long and are compound, meaning that each leaf consists of a number of leaflets. In this case, the compound leaves have 11 or more pointed leaflets. The pointed shape helps to differentiate tree-of-heaven from other trees that grow in our area that also have compound leaves. Taking a closer look at the leaflet's shape will prevent confusing Ailanthus with black walnut (Juglans nigra). The leaflets have an unequal base with two to four teeth. These teeth often have one to four glands. These glands help to give the tree-of-heaven its unpleasant aroma. 

Ailanthus leaflets

Leaflets with notches, or teeth, at leaflet base (photo by National Parks Service).

With or without its leaves, the smell of broken tissue of this species can be a clue to its identity. The smell can come from the glands at the base of the leaves, but also from broken twigs. This means that the smell can help to identify this species, all year long. Some people describe the smell as rancid peanut butter or well-worn gym socks. However you describe the smell, Ailanthus lives up to its Chinese name. 

During the winter months, the bark and leaf scars are the best ways to identify tree-of-heaven. The bark can be light brown to grey, and smooth in young trees. In later years, the bark turns a darker grey and becomes rough. The leaf scars result from the tree dropping its leaves and are located where large leaves attach to the branches. They are characteristically heart-shaped due to the shape of the petiole.

Ailanthus bark

Smooth bark of young Ailanthus (photo by Iowa State University).

older Ailanthus bark

Darker and rougher bark of older Ailanthus (photo by Brandeis University).

The seed clusters of this species can be another indicator to determine species. Tree-of-heaven is very prolific and a mature female can produce between 300,000 and 350,000 fertile seeds each year. This is part of the reason that this species spreads so rapidly. The seeds are twisted samaras, or wing-shaped. They are similar to the seeds that maples produce, but are single seeds versus the maple's dual seed samaras. They often turn a reddish color as they mature, and are clustered in large groups. The seeds are dispersed during winter months, so they are a good way to identify Ailanthus once it has lost its leaves. 

Ailanthus seeds

 Ailanthus seed clusters (photo by Bill Johnson).

You can use these characteristics to identify Ailanthus, which is the first step to controlling its spread and the damage that it can do to both urban and natural areas. Keep an eye out for a second blog post about tree-of-heaven, with a focus on control methods. Also, check out Tree-of-Heaven Eradication Now! (TEN!) at tenpdx.org for more information and resources.     

References:

Ailanthus altissima. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ailanthus_altissima

Alien Plant Invader: Tree-of-Heaven. City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services. https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bes/article/504479

Journey with Nature; Tree of Heaven. The Nature Conservancy. http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/northamerica/unitedstates/indiana/journeywithnature/tree_of_heaven-1.xml

Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima). A Guide for the identification of Boston Area Invasive and Exotic Species. Brandeis University. http://www.bio.brandeis.edu/fieldbio/Verrill_Wolf/pages/tree_of_heaven.html

Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Iowa State University Forestry Extension. https:www.extension.iastate.edu/forestry/iowa_trees/trees/tree_of_heaven.html

Tree-of-heaven: Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima. Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation. http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=7 

Broadleaf Evergreen Tree Tour: March 26 from 10 am to noon

Join Urban Forestry instructor Jim Gersbach for a walking tour of Irvington's unique broadleaf evergreens!

Starting Location: Caffe Destino,1339 NE Fremont St., Portland, OR 97212

When: Saturday, March 26th 2016 from 10 am to 12 pm

Agenda:

9:30 am - 10:00 am: Register at Caffe Destino 
9:00 am - 12 pm: Walk around the neighborhood and see broadleaf evergreen examples
Noon – Return to starting location

Register Online Here 

Irvington has some of the biggest, most beautiful, and ecologically significant broadleaf evergreen trees in Portland. Nurseryman Sean Hogan, who lives in Irvington, has long championed the use of evergreen trees in Portland, believing them eminently suited to our mild Pacific maritime climate. Since the 1990s he has been introducing to his neighbors’ yards and planting strips many species of broadleaf evergreens completely new to Oregon. As a result, Irvington has become a showcase for promising tree species seldom seen in the United States.

Citywide, broadleaf evergreens make up only about one percent of Portland’s urban canopy. Thanks to Hogan’s efforts, Irvington has Portland’s richest collection of broadleaf evergreen trees in the public right-of-way. This walk lets people see how these trees have grown, matured, and thrived in our climate. 

Just a few of the exciting trees that we will see on the walk:

bambooleaf oak Quercus myrsinifolia - boxleaf azara Azara microphylla - Chusan palm or windmill palm Trachycarpus fortunei - Compton oak Quercus x comptoniae - Edith Bogue southern magnolia Magnolia grandiflora ‘Edith Bogue’ - English holly Ilex aquifolium - Japanese chinkapin Castanopsis cuspidata - Jounama snow gum Eucalyptus pauciflora ssp. debeuzevillei - La Siberia Oak Quercus greggii 'La Siberia' - loquat Eriobotrya japonica - Mexican blue oak, Sonoran blue oak Quercus oblongifolia - olive Olea europaea - omeo gum Eucalyptus neglecta - Pacific madrone Arbutus menziesii - pineapple guava Feijoa sellowiana - Sierra oak, Canby oak Quercus canbyi - silver-leaf oak Quercus hypoleucoides - smiling forest lily tree Magnolia maudiae var. maudiae - snow gum Eucalyptus pauciflora ssp. niphophila - Southern magnolia Magnolia grandiflora - Sweet Bay magnolia Magnolia grandiflora var. australis

Questions?
Contact Patrick Key at Portland Parks & Recreation Urban Forestry
971-334-0347
Patrick.Key@portlandoregon.gov

 

Diverse Trees Planted to Replace Recently Removed Cherry Trees in Boise-Eliot

Albina Neighborhood Tree Team (ANTT) project a great success for neighbors, tree canopy and Portland

By Jim Gersbach, Urban Forestry Community Services Aide II

Boise-Eliot Tree Planting

Neighbors and volunteers help plant a boxleaf azara donated by Friends of Trees. 

Residents of Boise-Eliot planted scores of cherry trees to beautify their neighborhoods in North Portland, after World War II. Each spring, these trees brought stunning blossoms for all to see. However, as the trees aged, Boise-Eliot's streets became lined with trees in various states of demise. Besides creating a sense of blight rather than beauty, these lifeless, leafless trees no longer provided the many benefits residents would get from a living tree, such as reducing noise, moderating heat and preventing violence and crime.

Portland Parks and Recreation Urban Forestry's 2014 Street Tree Inventory revealed that more than 100 of the neighborhood's cherished cherry trees were dead or dying- due, in part, to the cost of removal and replacement. Additionally, planting of identical trees at the same time, resulted in simultaneous senescence.  

Albina Neighborhood Tree Team (ANTT), a group of city-trained volunteers, identified five qualified low-income households with dead street trees. ANTT then secured funding through the Urban Forest Stewardship Program, to hire certified arborists from local tree care company, Treecology, for tree removals, and Oregon Stump Grinding, to prepare the ground for replanting.   

The Tree Team, with approval of a city tree inspector, then decided on a diverse mix of eight replacement trees, donated by the non-profit organization, Friends of Trees. Those trees were planted by Tree Team members, Friends of Trees staff and volunteers, on February 13, 2016, as a special Valentine to the neighborhood.  

The new trees represent a healthier mix, with varied lifespans. For instance, a ponderosa pine can live for two centuries or more. Other trees planted were chosen because they bloom when nectar is scarce for pollinators, such as winter or summer. Some, like a Chinese pistache, are more tolerant of heat and drought than cherry trees, making them better adapted to climate change. Others, like a Chilean boxleaf azara, are evergreen and better suited than deciduous trees for intercepting and slowing runoff from Portland's winter rains. 

Homeowners in the area, like Aundrea Smith, are relieved that dangerous cherry trees that stood lifeless for so long were finally removed. She says she looks forward to admiring the lavendar flowers of her two new Muskogee crape myrtles for many summers to come. 

ANTT tree planting

Neighbors and volunteers pictured with a newly planted Muskogee crape myrtle, donated by Friends of Trees.

For more information about Neighborhood Tree Teams, the Urban Forest Stewardship Funding Program, or upcoming Urban Forestry workshops, please contact: Nik.Desai@portlandoregon.gov