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City of Portland



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17.13.030 Rules of Construction.

For the purposes of administration and enforcement of this Chapter, unless otherwise stated in this Chapter, the following rules of construction shall apply:

A. In case of any difference of meaning or implication between the text of this Chapter and any caption, illustration, summary table, or illustrative table, the text shall control.

B. The word "shall" is always mandatory and not discretionary: the word "may" is permissive.

C. Words used in the present tense shall include the future; words used in the singular number shall include the plural and the plural the singular, unless the context clearly indicates the contrary.

D. The phrase "used for" includes "arranged for," "designed for," "maintained for," or "occupied for."

E. Where a regulation involves two or more connected items, conditions, provisions, or events:

1. "And" indicates that all the connected terms, conditions, provisions or events shall apply;

2. "Or" indicates that the connected items, conditions, or provisions or events may apply singly or in any combination.

F. The word "includes" shall not limit a term to the specific example, but is intended to extend its meaning to all other instances or circumstances of like kind or character.