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The City of Portland, Oregon

Community & Civic Life

Promote the common good

Main: 503-823-4519

City/County Info: 503-823-4000

TDD: 503-823-6868

1120 SW 5th Ave, Suite 114, Portland, OR 97204

Other Academic Papers

Sherry Arnstein "Ladder of Citizen Participation"

Groundbreaking 1969 article that established the concept of levels of community engagement ranging from "manipulation" to "tokenism" to "real citizen participation"--a hard-hitting predecessor to the IAP2 Spectrum.

Constructing public dialogue...

Constructing public dialogue: A critical discourse analysis of the discourse practices. By Julie Odell, Portland State University, Dec. 2004.

From Neighborhood Association System to Participatory Democracy: Broadening and Deepening Public Involvement in Portland, Oregon

This article provides background on Portland's community engagement system, describes the 2005-06 system review--known as Community Connect--and resulting new programs, and shares important lessons learned. (Published in Nat'l Civic Review, Sum. 2009)

Hopes and Challenges of Democratic Governance: Lessons from Portland, Oregon

Paul Leistner, fellow, Center for Public Participation, PSU. Prepared for National League of Cities conference session —“Democratic Governance at the Neighborhood Level: What Have We Learned?”—November 11, 2008.

Origins of Portland's Neighborhood System

A chapter from Carl Abbott's 1983 book: Portland: Planning, Politics, and Growth in a Twentieth-Century

The Effects of a Formal Citizen Participation Program on Involvement in the Planning Process: A Case Study of Portland, Oregon

1990 article by Sy Adler and Gerald F. Blake: explores citizen participation in planning in Portland and the extent to which participation is equally distributed across the city and whether shifts in the level of mayoral support affect participation.

The Myth and Reality of Portland's Engaged Citizenry and Process-Oriented Governance

By Steve Johnson, Portland State University disertation. Published in "The Portland Edge" Island Press, 2004.