City/County Info: 503-823-4000
1221 SW 4th Ave, Suite 110, Portland, OR 97204
Groundbreaking 1969 article that established the concept of levels of community engagement ranging from "manipulation" to "tokenism" to "real citizen participation"--a hard-hitting predecessor to the IAP2 Spectrum.
Constructing public dialogue: A critical discourse analysis of the discourse practices. By Julie Odell, Portland State University, Dec. 2004.
This article provides background on Portland's community engagement system, describes the 2005-06 system review--known as Community Connect--and resulting new programs, and shares important lessons learned. (Published in Nat'l Civic Review, Sum. 2009)
Paul Leistner, fellow, Center for Public Participation, PSU. Prepared for National League of Cities conference session —“Democratic Governance at the Neighborhood Level: What Have We Learned?”—November 11, 2008.
A chapter from Carl Abbott's 1983 book: Portland: Planning, Politics, and Growth in a Twentieth-Century
1990 article by Sy Adler and Gerald F. Blake: explores citizen participation in planning in Portland and the extent to which participation is equally distributed across the city and whether shifts in the level of mayoral support affect participation.
By Steve Johnson, Portland State University disertation. Published in "The Portland Edge" Island Press, 2004.